Duke University Alumni Magazine


Funding for the future: the Macks
Photo: Bruce Feeley
hristy King Mack and John J. Mack '68 are contributing $10 million to The Campaign for Duke. John Mack, a Duke trustee, is president and chief operating officer of Morgan Stanley Dean Witter & Co., the global investment banking giant headquartered in New York.

The Campaign for Duke seeks to raise $1.5 billion; to date, it has surpassed $800 million. The Macks' gift supports programs ranging from athletics and academics to residential and community life:

  • $3 million for financial aid to North Carolina students through the Christy K. and John J. Mack Family Scholarship Endowment Fund. (Both Macks are native North Carolinians.) In keeping with the Macks' interest in providing opportunities for deserving young people, minority students will be given preference. Duke gives preference in admissions to North and South Carolinians, who typically represent about 15 percent of the undergraduate student body.

  • $1.1 million for the football program, including $100,000 for a feasibility study and master plan for athletics facilities.

  • $500,000 for the Duke-Durham Neighborhood Partnership Initiative, Duke's program to aid seven Durham public schools and twelve neighborhoods. It is the largest gift in the program's three-year history. The initiative has brought more than $3 million in corporate, federal, and foundation funds and hundreds of student, faculty, and staff volunteers into community-based programs in housing, health, education, and economic development. Duke has committed to raising $10 million to support the initiative as part of The Campaign for Duke.

  • $500,000 for improving residential life at Duke. Current discussions are focused on new housing arrangements for West Campus that will build upon the experiences of first-year students on all-freshman East Campus.

  • $250,000 for the Integrative Medicine Program, which combines "mind, body, and spirit" approaches in treating patients.

  • $3.6 million, principally for discretionary purposes, but including generous support of the Duke Annual Fund and gifts to the Fuqua School of Business.

The $10-million gift includes one of the earliest commitments to the campaign, $1 million donated in 1996 during its "quiet phase" to create a scholarship fund to assist students from Mooresville and Iredell County. The scholarship is named in memory of Alice Azouri Mack, John Mack's mother, who had a strong belief in the importance of education and a love of North Carolina and Duke.

After graduating from Duke on a football scholarship, John Mack went to work in New York as a municipal bond trader and salesman with Smith Barney. Today, he is a leader on Wall Street, where he was a key figure in the $10-billion merger in May 1997 that created Morgan Stanley Dean Witter & Co. The firm has more than 47,000 employees in 399 branches worldwide and a reported net income of $3.276 billion for 1998. John Mack is a member of the steering committee for The Campaign for Duke and the steering committee for the Fuqua School of Business, for which he served as a member of its board of visitors from 1994 to 1998. He was Fuqua's commencement speaker in 1995 and last year received its Thomas F. Keller Distinguished Leadership Award.

Christy Mack, a University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill graduate, is a member of the board of visitors of Trinity College. She also has been a supporter of the North Carolina School of the Arts, the Greensboro Children's Museum, and Exploris, a global communications museum and education system for children that will open this fall in Raleigh.

Both are deeply involved in civic, health, and education affairs in New York. He serves on the executive committee of the board of trustees of the New York Presbyterian Hospital, the University Hospital for Columbia, and Cornell. He also is a trustee of The Doris Duke Charitable Foundation and a member of the International Advisory Panel for the Monetary Authority of Singapore. She is president of the board of trustees of Rye Country Day School in New York, a charter board member of the New York Presbyterian Hospital Infant & Child Care Center, and a volunteer leader for the New York Presbyterian Babies and Children's Hospital.


ary Milus Yoh '59 and Harold L. "Spike" Yoh Jr. B.S.E. '58, vice chairman of Duke's board of trustees, have given Duke's athletics department $5 million to support major facility improvements for the football program. The gift, the largest ever for intercollegiate athletics at Duke, launches a football enhancement effort that officials say will feature a new football complex adjacent to Wallace Wade Stadium.

The athletics department has launched a planning effort and hopes to break ground in 2000 following a comprehensive size and scope assessment from an architectural firm. The proposed building would include a new locker room, weight room, equipment room, and state-of-the-art training facilities, as well as coaches' offices.

Spike Yoh retired last month as chairman of the board and chief executive officer of Day & Zimmermann Inc., a billion-dollar sales diversified professional service firm now managed by his children in Philadelphia. All five of the Yohs' children--Harold L. Yoh III B.S.E. '83; Michael H. Yoh B.S.E. '85; Karen B. Yoh '87; Jeffrey M. Yoh B.S.E. '88, M.B.A. '94; and William C. Yoh '93--earned degrees from Duke.

The Yohs' past gifts have supported the university's academic programs. In 1996, they established the Yoh Family Professorship, and they were among the first donors to respond to a major university initiative to enhance faculty support that was made possible by a matching-gifts challenge from Duke parents Anne and Robert Bass, of Fort Worth, Texas. Spike Yoh chaired the Duke Annual Fund from 1993 to 1996. Under his leadership, the Annual Fund set giving records, reaching the $11-million mark for the first time.

Yoh began his professional career in 1960, joining a firm begun by his father--the H.L. Yoh Co., which merged with Day & Zimmermann in 1962. He held a variety of management positions with the firm, becoming chief executive officer in 1976 and chairman of the board in 1980. He earned his M.B.A. at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School in 1962.

Since graduating from Duke, he has been active in university affairs, particularly at the school of engineering, where he chaired the Dean's Council and served on the school's development committee. First elected a Duke trustee in 1991, he is in his second term. He received the Charles A. Dukes Award for Outstanding Volunteer Service from the Duke Alumni Association in 1996, the Blue Devil Award in 1986, and the engineering school's Distinguished Alumni Award in 1983.


uke's board of trustees approved a 3.5 percent increase in the tuition for undergraduates next fall--the lowest increase in thirty-three years. The trustees also reaffirmed admissions and financial-aid policies to ensure a Duke education is available to all qualified students, regardless of family income.

At its meeting in February, the board endorsed a plan to increase the university's unrestricted operating budget for undergraduate financial aid by 5.6 percent to more than $25 million. Gifts and endowment support will push that figure to more than $30 million. Four out of ten Duke students receive financial aid, which is the cornerstone of the university's long-standing need-blind admissions policy. Duke remains one of the few colleges and universities in the nation that accepts students without regard to their ability to pay projected tuition and fees and then guarantees to meet the full demonstrated financial need of each student.

Under the new tuition rates, continuing third- and fourth-year students will pay $23,210 in tuition, an increase of $790 over the current year. Tuition for students who matriculated last fall and those entering next fall will be $24,040--$820 more under a two-tiered tuition structure adopted by the trustees last year to raise additional funds to be invested in strengthening five undergraduate academic programs, financial aid, and faculty development. Tuition for all engineering undergraduates next fall will be $24,130.

University officials said this year's percentage increase in tuition is the lowest since 1966, when there was no increase from 1965. Mandatory fees next year will be $711 and estimated room and board will be $7,088 for two semesters, a 2.3 percent increase for all undergraduates. The total price for continuing third- and fourth-year students next year will be $31,009, up 3.2 percent from this academic year.

The trustees built on financial-aid initiatives adopted last year by agreeing to give students needing financial assistance the full benefit of outside scholarships they bring to Duke when computing their package of grants and loans. This is expected to benefitprimarily high-achieving, middle-income students. The board also agreed to expand a program that substitutes $2,000 in grants for the first $2,000 in normal loans.

In a report to the trustees, Executive Vice President Tallman Trask III and Provost John W. Strohbehn said the tuition price increase for next year was kept low in part because the administration has agreed to limit growth in administrative support costs to 3 percent for fiscal 1999-00. "This commitment helps to ensure that resources are targeted as much as possible to academic programs and health-care delivery," they said. The overall budget for the next fiscal year will be determined by the board at its May meeting.

Tuition next year for graduate and professional students varies by schools, with the medical school tuition remaining the same as this year in response to growing concerns about student debt levels. The following are tuition rates for graduate and professional schools: divinity school, $10,720, up 5.1 percent over the current year; Fuqua School of Business, $26,200, up 3.8 percent; graduate school, $20,020, up 5.2 percent; law school, $25,500, up 4.5 percent; Nicholas School of the Environment, $18,900, up 4.4 percent; medical school, $26,700, no increase; and nursing school, $20,664, up 4.0 percent.


Illustration: Maxine Mills
eople who drink four or five cups of coffee throughout the morning have slightly elevated blood pressure and higher levels of stress hormones all day and into the evening, creating a scenario in which the body acts like it is continually under stress, according to a group of Duke Medical Center scientists.

In a study of seventy-two habitual coffee drinkers, the researchers found that subjects produced more adrenaline and noradrenalin and had higher blood pressure on days when they drank caffeine, compared with days they abstained. The two stress hormones are vital in helping the body react quickly in times of danger or stress, but they can damage the heart over a lifetime of heightened production, says James Lane, associate research professor of psychiatry at Duke. Lane prepared results of his study, funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, for presentation in March to a meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine.

"Moderate caffeine consumption makes a person react like he or she is having a very stressful day," Lane says. "If you combine the effects of real stress with the artificial boost in stress hormones that comes from caffeine, then you have compounded the effects considerably."

During the two-week study, the subjects experienced, on average, a 32 percent increase in adrenaline and a 14 percent increase in noradrenalin on days when they consumed caffeine. Their blood pressure rose an average of three points. Lane's study builds on smaller ones in which he found that caffeine boosted blood pressure, heart rate, and stress hormones in subjects who drank four to five cups of caffeine per day. In the current study, Lane replicated those findings and added to them by showing that subjects' blood pressures and stress-hormone levels stayed elevated until bedtime, even though they last consumed caffeine between noon and one p.m.

Occasional surges of stress hormones temporarily raise heart rate, blood pressure, and mental acuity--long enough to accomplish the task at hand. But an excess of stress hormones has been shown to compromise health in a variety of ways, from damaging blood vessels to weakening the immune system. Even the small boost in blood pressure seen in this study--an average of three points during the day and evening--can have clinical significance, Lane says. A review of nine major studies of blood pressure and heart-disease risk showed that a five-point difference in diastolic blood-pressure--the lower number used to assess health risk--was associated with at least a 34 percent increase in stroke and a 21 percent increase in the incidence of coronary heart disease.

While researchers have long known that caffeine can boost stress hormones and blood pressure, Lane says most studies have been conducted in a laboratory setting under tightly-controlled circumstances, where a single dose of caffeine is compared to none in a short time span. Lane says his body of research is unique because it measures blood pressure, heart rate, and stress-hormone levels at timed intervals during normal working conditions, while subjects are exposed to a range of moods and activities.

"You can measure how caffeine affects people in the laboratory, but that doesn't tell you what effects the drug has in the real world when people are exposed to normal stressors and activities," he says.


uke English department scholars agree that Shakespeare produced great theater, whether his plays stemmed from individual genius or brilliant collaboration or both. Now, with Hollywood's Shakespeare in Love having garnered seven Academy Awards (including best picture), three English professors--all experts on Shakespeare--commented on the movie's accuracy, and shared their thoughts on the bard himself.

"I think it's a fine film.... They don't pretend to be telling the truth," says Dale B. J. Randall, who has taught at Duke for forty-

two years. His specialty is seventeenth-century English drama. An authority on Shakespeare's contemporary Ben Jonson, he is the author of Winter Fruit: English Drama from 1642 to 1660 (Kentucky, 1995). This semester, he teaches "Tragedies of Shakespeare."

"I thought it was enormous fun," says Joseph A. Porter, an expert on Romeo and Juliet, the play featured in Shakespeare in Love. But Porter adds, "While Shakespeare often acted in his own plays, he never played Romeo, as the movie shows, so far as anyone knows."

Much of Porter's scholarly work has focused on Romeo and Juliet, including two books, Shakespeare's Mercutio: His History and Drama (University of North Carolina Press, 1989) and Critical Essays on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet (G. K. Hall, 1997). He is also editor of the New Variorum Othello, a Modern Language Association project that will update a series of scholarly editions on all of Shakespeare plays. This semester, he teaches a graduate seminar on Othello and an undergraduate course on "Shakespeare after 1600." He also publishes fiction under the name Joe Ashby Porter.

Laurie Shannon, an assistant professor, is finishing a book on Renaissance friendship, Sovereign Amity: Figures in Friendship in Shakespearean Contexts. She's a specialist on gender relationships and social hierarchies in Shakespeare's time, and she has published articles in the scholarly journals English Literary Renaissance and ELH. Although she hasn't yet seen the movie, she characterizes Shakespeare as "a linguistic and verbal prodigy who never forgot a single word he ever heard. He is the ultimate wordsmith."

"It sounds so cliched," adds Randall, "but I think Shakespeare is still the best thing going, and I have spent most of my career on other writers, such as Ben Jonson. It's his ability to let the language do in effect what it wants and needs to do in his mind. The English language had been changing very fast at the time that Shakespeare was writing...and Shakespeare was attuned to those facts and could let himself become in fact a medium for the language.

"Another reason that he has lasted is that he seems to be the most generous of all artists. By that I mean, everybody that appears in a play has a kind of authenticity, a right to be there.... Sympathy is another word for what I call generosity toward his characters. It's a non-prescriptive kind of humanness. We, as his audience, I think, learn and become more human and we do it without realizing it.

"One other thing is what I would call, and others have called, his proto-feminism.... He is very different from all his contemporaries in the kind of questioning he exhibits about the inequalities that women face in his plays. Shakespeare isn't any kind of late twentieth-century feminist, but in his plays, he shows a kind of sympathy.... He makes his plays seem like a kind of good medicine for us."

The scholars agree that Shakespeare never suffered, as far as anyone can tell, from writer's block. According to Randall, his rival Ben Jonson said of him, "He needs to be stopped. He writes too fast." But they point out that Shakespeare's plays, as the movie would have it, did serve as popular entertainment in Renaissance times: "Many people say if Shakespeare were alive now, he would be producing films," Shannon says. And, true to the movie, Christopher Marlowe did die in a tavern brawl. Porter says, "Officially, it was over the reckoning of the bill. There is speculation, and has been for some time, that it was a government-ordered assassination."

The appearance of Queen Elizabeth at one of the bard's plays was highly unlikely. "That would never have happened," says Porter. "Shakespeare's company would have been commanded to come to her. Shakespeare did perform before her.... She would never have spoken to him because of a wall of decorum that existed."


  • Duke law school dean Pamela Gann J.D. '73 will become president of Claremont McKenna College in California, effective June 30. She will be the fourth president in the liberal-arts college's fifty-two year history. Gann joined the Duke law faculty in 1975; she has been dean since 1988. Under her leadership, the law school's endowment has increased eight-fold, and its graduate degree program for young foreign lawyers now ranks among the top five in the U.S.

  • Both the women's and the men's basketball coaches, Gail Goestenkors and Mike Krzyzewski, were selected ACC Coaches of the Year by the Associated Press. This was the third time in four seasons that Goestenkors was selected, and it was Kryzyzewski's fifth time winning the ACC coaching honors. Capping a remarkable year, both teams made it to the national championship games, after winning the Atlantic Coast Conference regular season titles. The women lost to Purdue and the men to Connecticut in the finals.

  • Clarence Birkhead, who rose from patrolman to assistant chief in a decade, was named director and chief of the Duke University Police Department. Birkhead has served as interim chief of the department since Alana Ennis left last fall to become chief of the Burlington, Vermont, police department. As chief, Birkhead is responsible for law enforcement and security for the entire university, including the Duke University Health System, satellite facilities throughout the state, and the 7,700-acre Duke Forest in Durham and Orange counties. He earned an associate degree in applied science/law enforcement at Guilford Technical Community College and a bachelor's in criminal justice at Shaw University; he is now pursuing his master's in organizational management.

  • Tom Rankin, executive director of the Center for Documentary Studies at Duke, was appointed to a four-year term on the board of trustees of the American Folklife Center, a branch of the Library of Congress in Washington. The folklife center, created by the U.S. Congress in 1976, includes the Library's Archive of Folk Culture, founded in 1928 as a repository of American folk music. Rankin, a photographer, filmmaker, and folklorist, has been documenting and interpreting the folk culture of the American South for more than fifteen years.

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