In one of the largest gifts ever to support environmental education and research, the family of Boston business executive Peter M. Nicholas '64 is giving $20 million to the School of the Environment. A resolution to rename the school The Nicholas School of the Environment was approved by Duke's board of trustees in December.

The Nicholas gift is the second largest for academic programs ever received by the university, after the founding gift in 1924 from tobacco magnate and industrialist James B. Duke. The school is the first new major academic unit established at Duke since 1969, when the Fuqua School of Business was formally designated a school.

The gift provides $10 million in endowment to help the school pay for its wing of the $80-million Levine Science Research Center, which opened last year as the university's premier facility for interdisciplinary research and education in the sciences, engineering, and medicine. It also will provide $6 million to endow four new professorships, $2 million to endow a fellows-in-residence program, and $2 million in unrestricted endowment.

Nicholas is the chairman, president, chief executive officer, and founder of Boston Scientific Corporation, a leading producer of scientific and medical equipment. He is also a member of Duke's board of trustees.


Peter Nicholas '64, delivering the keynote address at the annual Founders' Day convocation in December, spoke about the importance of forging alliances between university departments and schools, and between academe and industry. It was an appropriate correlation, since Nicholas and his family had just announced the $20-million gift to the School of the Environment, which is part of the Levine Science Research Center.

At the ceremonies, held in Duke Chapel, President Nannerl O. Keohane presented awards to other members of the Duke community. The University Medal for Distinguished Meritorious Service, Duke's highest service award, went to educator and former trustee John W. Chandler '52, Ph.D. '54 and popular longtime administrator Anne Garrard '25, A.M. '30.

Chandler, former president of Williams College and of the Association of American Colleges, became a Duke trustee in 1985 and served as chair from 1993-94, when he was named trustee emeritus. He headed the presidential search process that led to the board's selection of Keohane as Duke's eighth president.

Keohane praised Chandler as "an educator, philosopher, administrator, scholar of religion, and tireless advocate for higher education in America....At Duke, where he is known for both his keen intellect and wry sense of humor, he has distinguished himself as a quiet voice of reason, a trusted counselor, and an advocate for open governance and academic freedom."

Garrard, who now lives in Durham's Methodist Retirement Home, was born in 1905. At the age of sixteen, she was the first Durham woman to live in Southgate, the first women's dorm completed, in the fall of 1921. She taught for ten years in Durham public schools until 1935, when she became dean of women at Greensboro College. She joined Duke's Alumni Affairs staff in 1939, where she remained until her retirement in 1970, serving as assistant director of alumni affairs.

In presenting the medal to Garrard, Keohane said Garrard's work "has been based on the principle that a university's responsibility to and for its students lasts not just through graduation, but throughout life. In carrying out that work, she has added immeasurably to the life of the campus, and to the lives and careers of all who were touched by her friendship and generosity."

Keohane presented the Duke Alumni Association's Distinguished Alumni and Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching awards to trustee emeritus and national health policy leader John Alexander McMahon '42, and noted political scientist Ole Holsti, respectively.

The Humanitarian Service Award, which honors individuals whose lives represent "a long-term commitment to direct service to others and simplicity of lifestyle," was presented to Paul Farmer '82. The physician and anthropologist has been treating patients in rural Haiti for more than twelve years. An assistant professor of social medicine at the Harvard Medical School, where he earned his medical degree, Farmer is also a fellow in the infectious disease program at Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital.


The John Hope Franklin Research Center for African and African American Documentation has been established at Duke in honor of the James B. Duke professor emeritus of history. The personal and professional writings of Franklin will become the cornerstone of the collection.

His life's work has highlighted the history of the South and the roles of black Americans in the nation's development. The collection will build on the library's collection of materials on race relations, slavery, the abolition movement, and civil rights, and become a hub for black history research.

Franklin, who this year received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor, will contribute papers that date back to the nineteenth century, including some from his father and grandfather. He also will include papers documenting his work on the Brown vs. Board of Education case and his entire collection of George Washington Williams' papers, which may be the only documents in existence on the nineteenth-century historian, soldier, legislator, and diplomat.

The mission of the center is to make available to all researchers a body of primary sources and publications and foster cooperative academic endeavors among institutions and with the community at large. The center will collect other materials by and about Africans and African Americans, including books, periodicals, microforms, photographs, videotapes, manuscripts, archives, and sound recordings. It will focus especially on identifying, acquiring, and preserving documentation of black experiences and accomplishments during the twentieth century.

The library's participation in the Association of Research Libraries, Triangle Research Libraries Network, and Research Libraries Group makes the center's resources available to researchers around the world.


For the third consecutive year, Duke is among the select institutions represented in this year's group of Rhodes Scholars. And for the third time since the competition began, Duke is sending two students in one year. Trinity senior Eric Greitens and Adam Russell '95 were selected from a nationwide applicant pool of 1,041 students; they are the twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth Rhodes Scholars in the university's history.

Greitens is a Program II ethics major who has volunteered for humanitarian relief efforts in Rwanda and Bosnia, and taught English to students in China. He is also an accomplished photographer whose work was exhibited at the Sanford Institute of Public Policy and in Duke Magazine. At Oxford, Greitens will enroll in the philosophical theology masters program. After completing the two-year program, Greitens says he plans to pursue work in nonprofit humanitarian organizations.

Russell was a cultural anthropology major whose honors thesis focused on anthropological and chaos theories, bodybuilding, and physical-fitness gyms. He was captain of the Duke rugby team. He has spent the last year working as an assistant for English professor and author Reynolds Price '55, a previous Rhodes Scholar. Russell will continue his cultural anthropology research, and his rugby playing, at Oxford.

Prospective Rhodes Scholars are judged on a number of criteria, including scholastic achievements, athletic endeavors, strength of moral character, leadership ability, and compassion for others.


At least twenty valuable plates of illustrations and maps have been cut out and stolen from rare books in Duke's collections. Library officials estimate the damage in excess of $20,000.

The theft is believed to be the work of a man being investigated by the FBI for similar acts in libraries at Johns Hopkins, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Brown, and the University of Virginia. Joseph Gilbert Bland Jr., also known as James Perry, was apprehen-ded in Baltimore in December after authorities say he was caught stealing from expensive volumes at Johns Hopkins. He was allowed to pay restitution to Peabody Library and leave. Since then, it was learned that the same man, posing as a graduate student from the University of Florida, had visited research libraries at several universities.

Linda McCurdy, director of research services at Perkins Library, says the suspect apparently visited Duke five times in the last year-and-a-half. While the usual security measures designed to protect rare research materials were employed in the libraries hit by the thief, investigators believe the suspect used a concealed razor blade and hid the plates inside his clothes.


Campus controversy erupted this fall when the Duke Student Government (DSG) voted not to grant a charter to an evangelical group. "A Chosen Generation," which claims to represent the "uncompromised voice" of Jesus Christ, had applied for official university recognition in order to use meeting space and receive student fees. Thirteen campus religious groups have charters.

In denying the request, DSG officials cited alleged instances of aggressive indoctrination methods used by "A Chosen Generation" on prospective members. Several students claimed that the group's activities had contributed to the mental and emotional breakdown of one undergraduate who had to be hospitalized for psychiatric treatment. Others told The Chronicle that they had experienced or witnessed a pattern of coercive pressure by group leaders to persuade students to conform to their ideology. The leaders of the group charge that student leaders are biased against religion.

Debra Brazzel, acting dean of the chapel and director of religious life, told The Chronicle she would be reluctant to grant a charter to a potentially adverse organization. "I have been disturbed by some of the behavior of the leaders of the group in the recent past," she said. "Without some very strong assurances that they will abide by university guidelines for acceptable behavior, I would be hesitant to welcome them as a recognized religious group."


It may have been the earliest that students got out of bed. When Good Morning America brought its production to Duke in November, the crowds included dozens of wide-awake undergraduates from Duke, members of the university community, and people from the Triangle area.

The show was broadcast live from in front of Duke Chapel. On a day that dawned sunny but cold, the university had arranged for mini-muffins, bagels, coffee, and hot chocolate to keep the crowd energized. Waving banners and placards, the crowd cheered on cue throughout the two-hour show. Live and taped segments included interviews with student leaders from Duke, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina State University, and North Carolina Central University; dance demonstrations; a feature on the Research Triangle Park; a barbecue tasting; and music by a local rock band.

The behind-the-scenes preparations took months of planning. Regular meetings were held involving the departments of public safety, grounds, special events, catering, facilities, and public affairs, among others. The only request that the university had to decline came when producers asked if they could dig a pit in the ground in front of the chapel. For authenticity, the officials wanted to show their viewers how a cooked pig looks in a pit, but eventually agreed to leave the earth alone and put the pig in a cooker.

The Duke broadcast was the fourth leg of a five-city nationwide tour during a "sweeps" rating period. Durham was selected as representative of the New South because of its recent media rankings as a good place to work and live.


Historians from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, and Duke are collaborating on a $1.75-million, six-year project to develop a comprehensive new American history text and interactive video that integrates science and technology with social and political history.

According to Duke history professor Alex Keyssar, a project coordinator, the text and video will be an all-encompassing history rather than one that puts a heavy emphasis on science and technology. "But the evolution of science and technology is absolutely essential to modern history and should be understood as such and not relegated to three paragraphs at the end of the chapter."

The authors believe that if citizens of a twenty-first-century democracy want to understand and become involved with science, technology, and government, they will need to understand how these areas have evolved and have come to exercise power and influence in society.

Designed for college and general audiences, the text will be funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and will be published by W.W. Norton in 2001. By using interactive video, the project will allow users to view maps, graphs, news footage, cultural artifacts, and the design and function of tools and machines. The authors will also be able to illustrate such topics as geographic expansion, transportation systems, and the evolution of important technologies and systems of production.


While editors encourage journalists to look for scandal, conflict, and failure, "The fact is, we miss an awful lot of good-news stories that are also interesting," syndicated columnist William J. Raspberry said in a November lecture. He spoke at Sanford Institute as this year's James D. Ewing lecturer on ethics in journalism. Raspberry, Knight Professor of the Practice of Journalism and Communications at Duke, continues to write his Pulitzer Prize-winning column for The Washington Post.

"Our readers tend to think that we ought to pay more attention to such notions as journalistic and civic responsibility; that those in the business ought to be concerned not merely with the truth of what we publish but also with its predictable consequences," Raspberry said. "We counter that our job is to tell readers what is happening, leaving the consequences --never easy to predict--to take care of themselves. And readers will argue that considerations of consequences ought to be an integral part of our news judgments; that we ought to care about outcomes.

"My judgment? The readers are right."

Raspberry said it is true that no one would buy a paper that was devoted to stories on Sunday School picnics, smoothly functioning agencies, and above-average students. But that standard journalism rebuttal "misses the point," in his view. "What galls newspaper readers, I believe, is their sense that we and they are somehow not on the same side; we follow our 'heartless objectivity' with no concern for its impact on real people."

Such a separation from reader interests hasn't always been the case, according to Raspberry. The press played an important role in the civil rights struggle and "has every reason to be proud of its role in that transformation of America," he said. But today, journalists "pay so much attention to conflict and so little to substance."

Raspberry said journalists and their editors need to rethink their focus on "conflict" as the overriding news value. "Of course, conflict is a story. Of course our readers need to know what has gone wrong. But we also need to get our newsrooms interested in what works, and how it might be made to work better." By focusing on what works, said Raspberry, the media can "provide leadership in the search for solutions, for commonality, for community."


Older people who suffer heart attacks appear to have a much better chance of survival if they are immediately cared for by a cardiologist rather than a family practitioner, according to results of a study by physicians at Duke Medical Center.

The researchers, who reported their findings at the annual American Heart Association meeting in November, say the study raises concerns about the growing practice in managed-care health organizations that require patients to be screened by primary care physicians.

The study found that the risk of dying within one year after a heart attack was 15 percent lower if a patient was cared for by a cardiologist instead of a family practitioner, and 5 percent lower if the patient was seen by a general internist. The study also noted that cardiologists tend to use expensive and resource-intensive procedures more often than non-specialists.

"The findings are particularly timely in light of changing patterns of hospital admissions brought on by the growth of managed care in this country," says James Jollis, assistant professor of cardiology and principal investigator of the study. "We are in the midst of radically changing the way medicine is dispensed in this country. These results suggest before we adopt strategies that affect how we care for acutely ill patients, we should be sure patients do as well with a new pattern of care."


Pollster Peter Hart, who reports for NBC and The Wall Street Journal, had a mixed message for one of his clients--President Clinton--in September remarks at the Sanford Institute.

Just a quarter of the American public sees the nation as headed in the right direction, he said. The president scores highly for "caring" and "staying in touch." He gets passing grades, at best, on matters of character, leadership, and effectiveness--his ability to handle a crisis and serve as commander-in-chief, his ethical and moral stance, his leadership style, his policies, and his adeptness at achieving his goals. The American people have "no sense of who Bill Clinton is or what he is about," Hart said.

While the public is "disappointed" in the presidential performance, it has "not given up on Clinton," according to Hart. But Clinton has more than a communications problem with voters. "They need to hear from him, 'I've learned, I'm growing, I've got my bearings.'"

Most of Clinton's fellow contenders or would-be contenders for the White House aren't getting pleasing polling results, either. Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole, for example, has moved almost nowhere in political polls since last March. Hart called Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich "one of the most covered and least liked speakers we have had. The more Gingrich is the face of the Republican Party, the more likely it is that Democrats will do well." Hart added that Americans are growing disenchanted with the Republican congressional agenda. "Voters are looking for a balance, a compromise" between the parties, he said. "They don't necessarily want one side to win in the tug-of-war."

Hart convened a series of focus groups that, as part of their agenda, entertained this rather offbeat question: Which member of your family does this politician remind you of? Colin Powell inspired associations with a strong father or a wise older brother; Dole, a mean uncle; and Clinton, a teenage brother who has great potential, but, in Hart's words, "is always messing up."

The last presidential election centered on economic issues. The next time, the presidential candidates will need to respond to a broad fear that "the country is out of control, that a decline in moral values is the main cause of the problems in our society," Hart said.

For now, he said, it's not clear that the candidates are getting much of an audience: Thirty-seven percent of the American people don't even know there is a presidential election in 1996; 60 percent haven't had a single conversation about the race; and when asked an open-ended question about which candidate they favor, 60 percent don't have one in mind.


For abused children and their advocates, dealing with multiple service agencies in order to gain counseling, protection, medical attention, and legal redress for damage done can be a daunting prospect. But a new consortium created by Duke, North Carolina Central University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is designed to coordinate all of those assistance efforts.

The Center for Child Protection-North Carolina was formed this fall to work with law enforcement and social service agencies in Durham and Orange counties. The center's interdisciplinary approach calls for specialists in law, medicine, psychiatry, and social work to work with other professionals and lay people to combat the multiple causes and effects of child abuse. Six separate groups--medical treatment groups and a mental health treatment groups at both Duke and UNC, a family law clinic at NCCU, and a statewide group at UNC that provides training and funding for medical and mental health evaluations--will come together under the center's auspices.

Matthew Epstein, a lawyer and former legal and legislative counsel for the New Hampshire Division of Mental Health, is the consortium's executive director. A board of directors, chosen by Duke President Nannerl O. Keohane and the chancellors of NCCU and UNC-Chapel Hill, will oversee the center's operations. The center is scheduled to open officially next summer and will eventually serve approximately 1,800 children.


For more than a decade, students interested in arts-related careers have been able to spend a semester in the Big Apple as part of the Duke in New York program. This spring, two initiatives will expand students' artistic options.

In a program called "Leadership and the Arts," sixteen students will live in New York and get a rare behind-the-scenes look at the Metropolitan Opera and other New York City arts institutions. They will meet with performers, directors, choreographers, philanthropists, and others involved in the arts to gain a better understanding of leadership in artistic organizations and institutions.

The program, headed by public policy lecturer Bruce Payne, marks the first time that the Metropolitan Opera has offered a class to college students. The class, "Grand Opera: Music and Drama, Performance and Politics," will be taught by Robert Brucker, director of education at the Metropolitan Opera Guild.

Students will also take two classes taught by Payne-- "Leadership and Quality in the Arts," and "Policy, Philanthropy, and the Arts"--and an elective course at New York University. In addition to attending fifteen operas at the Met, students will see sixteen to twenty Broadway and off-Broadway plays and a smaller number of dance performances. They will also visit artists' studios and museums, meet with foundation executives, and study government policies that relate to the arts.

On the West Coast, aspiring entertainment moguls will have a program of their own. As part of the inaugural Duke in Los Angeles Program in Arts and Media, juniors and seniors will take classes at the University of Southern California and participate in a related internship. Students will choose from one of five disciplines: film, media, entertainment law, music industry, and art and technology.

Kathy Silbiger, director of Duke's Institute of the Arts, has been named administrative director. Eric Freedman, a visiting professor in the literature department and an alumnus of USC's School of Cinema-Television, will be the academic adviser. The Program in Film and Video is also a sponsor of the program.


  • English professor and poet James Applewhite received the North Carolina Award, the state's highest civilian honor, for his contributions to literature. His writings have won him the Emily Clark Balch Prize and the John Stein Award.
  • Robert F. Markley was appointed director of corporate and foundation relations and assistance vice president for research administration. Before coming to Duke this fall, Markley was director of corporate and foundation relations at Purdue University. Richard Lewis Cox B.D. '67, Th.M. '69, Ed.D. '82 was appointed major gifts officer. He was Duke's associate vice president of student affairs and dean of student life.
  • Elizabeth Locke '64, Ph.D. '72 has been named executive director of The Duke Endowment. She will continue to serve as director of the organization's education and com- munications divisions. Locke, who was director of Duke's publications office from 1975-1979, is a former member of Trinity College's board of visitors and a current member of Duke Magazine's editorial advisory board.

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